UPDATE 12th October 2021: AC 91-02v1.0, Guidelines for aeroplanes with MTOW not exceeding 5 700 kg – suitable places to take off and land, issued in October 2021 answers  the question!

My earlier articles on the performance requirements of Part 91 were based on the draft so, as it is only a few months before it takes effect, we should consider it again. Being a former flight performance engineer, I like to take an interest in numbers so let’s discuss take-off and landing performance as required by 91.795 and 91.800.

We’ll discuss take-off performance in some detail and just touch on the similar landing performance requirements.

Perhaps my opinion is incorrect so I look forward to an Advisory Circular on this subject or other clarification from CASA. Some suggested questions to ask:

  1. The Part 91 MOS 24.02 states “You must determine the aeroplane performance from 1 of the following” then lists the AFM, manufacturer’s data manual or data approved under Part 21. Does this mean that only data from any of those three sources may be used or may other data be used to supplement what is in there? For example, the Piper Archer III POH states “Effects of conditions not considered on the charts must be evaluated by the pilot, such as the effect of soft or grass runway surface on takeoff and landing performance …”.
  2. Will CASA be providing guidance in the form of an AC to include aircraft with an older certification basis, or no certification basis, where the performance information provided is quite sparse? Only aircraft certified to later amendments of FAR 23 were required to provide performance data for all conditions within the operational limitations of the aircraft. Two examples:
    • The 8KCAB Standard Decathlon has take-off performance data provided only for a Sensenich 74DM6S8-0-56 propeller however many examples in Australia have the coarser pitch -60 propeller with worse take-off performance.
    • The 8KCAB Xtreme Decathlon has a limitation of maximum outside air temperature of 49 deg C however airfield performance information is only provided to 40 deg C.

Learn to Turn

On September 8th at 3:30 pm EDT (that is 5:30 am Australian EST) — Aviation Performance Solutions (APS) broadcast a live discussion with Rich Stowell about Learn to Turn on LinkedIn. You can view the video at

Ozaeros is supporting this program with information feely available at

The following is from Rich Stowell on 10th September 2021:

Today is the official release of “Learn to Turn,” a free program that takes a stick and rudder approach to help reduce the frequency of loss of control accidents. Sponsored by Avemco Insurance Company and Hartzell Propeller Inc., the program is anchored by a 98-page digital booklet. Supporting assets include a 42-page graphics supplement to facilitate classroom discussion, a 28-minute webinar recording, a 12-minute video, targeted training exercises, and a pilot survey.

With more than 30 years of experience providing spin, emergency maneuver, and aerobatic training, I’ve found that through no fault of their own, light airplane pilots generally have been misinformed and undertrained regarding turn dynamics. As a result, too many continue to lose control of their airplanes. So in addition to academic content, “Learn to Turn” offers training exercises designed to improve basic flying skills and increase awareness of the consequences of our control inputs.”

Topics include Bottom Line Up Front; Program Structure; The Problem and A Solution; Operational Errors; What the Specialists See; Basic Object Motion; The Primary Controls; Horizontal, Oblique, and Vertical Turns; Accelerated Stalls; Excellence in Airmanship; and Training Mindset and Exercises.

A coalition of thirty early supporters is sharing and promoting the content already: Adventure Flying Services, Anderson Aviation, AOPA Air Safety Institute, Arizona Aviation Services, ATO Cirrus Aircraft Management, Aviation Performance Solutions, Canyon Flying, Central Washington University, Community Aviation, CP Aviation, Experimental Aircraft Association, FAA Safety Team, Gallatin College Montana State University, Gold Seal Online Ground School, Idaho Division of Aeronautics, International Aerobatic Club, McMurray Aero Safety Training, National Association of Flight Instructors, Ozaeros, Patty Wagstaff Airshows, Recreational Aviation Foundation, Redbird Flight Simulations, Rod Machado, Smokehouse Pilots Club, Society of Aviation and Flight Educators, Specialized Aero Works, Spread Aviation, Stick & Rudder Aviation, Treasure Valley Community College, and Utah Valley University.

Pilots and especially instructors are encouraged to use “Learn to Turn” to gain more knowledge and experience with all aspects of turning flight. While the e-booklet is available from many of the supporters listed above, all the program assets can be accessed at Further, pilots who participate in “Learn to Turn” can qualify for a five percent discount on their annual Avemco insurance premium through the company’s Safety Rewards Program.

The AOPA Air Safety Institute will be hosting the Wings-approved webinar, “Implementing Learn to Turn” with Stowell on Thursday, October 21st at 7:00 pm EDT.